The following sources were referenced or suggested by participants in the workshop. This is not intended as a comprehensive list of readings on data modeling in the humanities, but (at the moment) reflects the textual emphasis of the workshop. We welcome additional suggestions for added categories and items.

General Background, Theories of Modeling

Black, Max. Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1962.

Harré, Romano. The Principles of Scientific Thinking. London, Macmillan, 1970. (See especially chapter. 2: “Models in Theories.”)

Beynon, Meurig, Steve Russ, and Willard McCarty. “Human Computing—Modelling with Meaning.”  Literary and Linguistic Computing 2006 21(2):141-157.

Simsion, Graeme C., and Graham C. Witt. Data Modelling Essentials. San Fransico, Elsevier 2005 (3rd edition). 

Chen, Peter, and Peter Pin-Shan (March 1976). “The Entity-Relationship Model – Toward a Unified View of Data.” ACM Transactions on Database Systems 1 (1): 9–36. doi:10.1145/320434.320440.

Mani, Murali, Dongwon Lee, and Richard R. Muntz. “Semantic Data Modeling Using XML Schemas.”  Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2001). Online.

McCarty, Willard. “Knowing … : Modeling in Literary Studies.” In A Companion to Digital Literary Studies, ed. Susan Schreibman and Ray Siemens. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008. Online:

Pédauque, Roger T. Le Document à la lumière du numérique : forme, texte, médium : comprendre le rôle du document numérique dans l’émergence d’une nouvelle modernité. Caen : C & F Éd., 2006 ISBN 2-915825-04-1

Pédauque, Roger T. Document: form, sign and medium, as reformulated for electronic documents (English translation of the first chapter of the book above).

Sperberg-McQueen, C. M.: Chap. 14: “Classification and its Structures.” A Companion to Digital Humanities, ed. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, John Unsworth. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.

Understanding the Process of Data Modeling

Lauritsen, Marc, and Thomas F. Gordon. “Toward a general theory of document modeling.” Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law Barcelona, Spain. 2009, p. 202-211. (Online)

Maler, Eve /   Jeanne El Andaloussi: Developing SGML DTDs: From Text to Model to Markup. London : Prentice-Hall International (UK) 1996. (Online)

Megginson, David: Structuring XML Documents. Prentice Hall, 1998.

Salminen, Airi/ Kauppinen, K. / Lehtovaara, M.: Towards a methodology for document analysis. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science 48,7 (1997), 644-55. (Online)

Salminen, Airi / Lyytikäinen, V. / Tiitinen, P.: Putting documents into their work context in document analysis. (Online)

Salminen, Airi: Methodology for Document Analysis. In: Kent, A. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Marcel Dekker: New York 2000, 299-320.

Salminen, Airi: Document Analysis Methods. In: Miriam A. Drake (ed.): Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Second Edition. New York, Basel: Marcel Dekker 2003, p 916-927.

Ingrid Schmidt: Modellierung von Metadaten. In: Henning Lobin; Lothar Lemnitzer: Texttechnologie. Perspektiven und Anwendungen. Stauffenburg, Tübingen 2004, ISBN 3-86057-287-3, S. 143–164.

Domain-Specific Data Modeling

Scholarly Texts and Editions

Audenaert, Neal, and Richard Furuta. Annotated Facsimile Editions: Defining macro-level structure for image-based electronic editions. In: Literary and Linguistic Computing 2009 24(2):143-151.

DeRose, Steve, David Durand, Elli Mylonas, and Allen Renear (1990). “What is Text, Really?” Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 1(2), pp. 3-26.

Durand, David G., Elli Mylonas, and Steven J. DeRose. “What Should Markup Really Be? Applying theories of text to the design of markup systems.” Presented at The Joint International Conference: ALLC/ACH 1996. (Online)

Durusau, Patrick. “How and Why to Formalize Your Markup,” in Electronic Textual Editing, ed. John Unsworth, Katherine O’Brien O’Keeffe, and Lou Burnard. MLA, 2006. (Online preprint available)

Huitfeldt, Claus, and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen: What is transcription? In: Literary and Linguistic Computing 2008 23(3):295-310.

Øre, Christian-Emil Smith, and Øyvind Eide. “TEI and Cultural Heritage Ontologies: Exchange of Information?” Literary & Linguistic Computing, 2009. 24 2 pp. 161-172.

Sperberg-McQueen, C. M., Claus Huitfeldt, and Allen Renear. “Meaning and Interpretation of Markup.” Markup Languages: Theory & Practice 2.3 (2000): 215-234. (Online)

Witt, Andreas, and Dieter Metzing (Hrsg.) (2010). Linguistic Modeling of Information and Markup Languages. Contributions to Language Technology. X/266 S. – Springer Netherland, 2010 (Text, Speech and Language Technology, Vol. 41.)

Modeling Multiple Hierarchies in XML

Renear, Allen. “Refining Our Notion of What Text Really Is. The Problem of Overlapping Hierarchies,” Research in Humanities Computing. Nancy Ide and Susan Hockey (eds.), Oxford, 1992/1995 (OHCO92)

Schmidt, Desmond. “Merging Multi-Version Texts: a Generic Solution to the Overlap Problem.” Presented at Balisage: The Markup Conference 2009, Montréal, Canada, August 11 – 14, 2009. In Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2009. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 3 (2009). doi:10.4242/BalisageVol3.Schmidt01.

Witt, Andreas (2005): “Multiple hierarchies: new aspects of an old solution.” Re-published in: Dipper, Stefanie, Michael Götze, and Manfred Stede (eds.), Heterogeneity in Focus: Creating and Using Linguistic Databases, Volume 2 of Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure (ISIS), Working Papers of the SFB 632. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag. 

Data Modeling Standards, Languages, and Resources

  • CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model
  • Europeana Data Model.
  • FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records)
  • Gellish
  • Object Role Modeling
  • OWL
  • RDF
  • SKOS
  • UML

One thought on “Bibliography

  1. Let me add some additional items to this list:
    – Roger T. Pédauque: Le Document à la lumière du numérique : forme, texte, médium : comprendre le rôle du document numérique dans l’émergence d’une nouvelle modernité. Caen : C & F Éd., 2006 ISBN 2-915825-04-1
    – Roger T. Pédauque: Document: form, sign and medium, as reformulated for electronic documents (English translation of the first chapter of the book above)
    I’m not really sure in which category to put both.
    Furthermore, we might add the Europeana Data Model, although it is not a standard. The relevant link would be

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