Tools & Standards

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Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules

Rules “designed for use in the construction of catalogues and other lists in general libraries of all sizes. The rules cover the description of, and the provision of access points for, all library materials commonly collected at the present time.” <>.



Application-Programming Interface

A “set of programming instructions and standards for accessing a Web-based software application or Web tool. A software company releases its API to the public so that other software developers can design products that are powered by its service.” © David Roos, “How to Leverage an API for Conferencing,” How Stuff Works?, accessed 11 August 2013, <>.


Authority record

That which is used “to record the form of a heading (name, subject, uniform title), and to record cross references to that form from other possible forms. In addition, authorities for titles which may be series titles also record the treatment of the series; e.g., whether the series is classed as a collection or classed separately.” © “MARC Authority Record,” SLC [Special Libraries Cataloguing], accessed August 22, 2013, <>.





CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model – International Council for Museums

The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage documentation…to promote a shared understanding of cultural heritage information by providing a common and extensible semantic framework that any cultural heritage information can be mapped to. It is intended to be a common language for domain experts and implementers to formulate requirements for information systems and to serve as a guide for good practice of conceptual modelling. In this way, it can provide the “semantic glue” needed to mediate between different sources of cultural heritage information, such as that published by museums, libraries and archives.

E5: This class comprises changes of states in cultural, social or physical systems, regardless of scale, brought about by a series or group of coherent physical, cultural, technological or legal phenomena. Such changes of state will affect instances of E77 Persistent Item or its subclasses.

The distinction between an E5 Event and an E4 Period is partly a question of the scale of observation. Viewed at a coarse level of detail, an E5 Event is an ‘instantaneous’ change of state. At a fine level, the E5 Event can be analysed into its component phenomena within a space and time frame, and as such can be seen as an E4 Period. The reverse is not necessarily the case: not all instances of E4 Period give rise to a noteworthy change of state. <>.




A “Java software for collating textual sources, for example, to produce a critical apparatus. As the designated successor of Peter Robinson’s Collate, it is developed jointly by several partner institutions and individuals under the umbrella of the European initiative ‘Interedition’.” <>.



Originally created as a debugging tool by the libsecondlife software library, intended to support importing and exporting of features as well as backup; the source code was released, sparking a debate over electronic intellectual property rights. Use of CopyBot to infringe users’ intellectual property rights is prohibited in Second Life. © “CopyBot,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <>.



Corpus Query Processor

A “specialized search engine for linguistic research” and included under the IMS Corpus Workbench which is “a set of tools for the manipulation of large, linguistically annotated text corpora.” © Oliver Christ, et al, eds, “The IMS Corpus Workbench: Corpus Query Processor (CQP)–User’s Manual,” Corpus Linguistics at FICLIT, last modified 16 August 1999, <>, p. 4.




D3 JavaScript

A JavaScript library that is used to manipulate documents based on the available data. Using HTML, SVG, and CSS, D3 emphasizes web standards in order to make available “the full capabilities of modern browsers without tying [the user] to a proprietary framework, combining powerful visualization components and a data-driven approach to DOM manipulation.” <>.


Dewey Decimal System

Library classification system.




Digital Object Identifier

A system that “provides a technical and social infrastructure for the registration and use of persistent interoperable identifiers for use on digital networks. The DOI system implements the Handle System and the indecs Framework.” <>.



Document Object Model

An “application programming interface (API) for valid HTML and well-formed XML documents. It defines the logical structure of documents and the way a document is accessed and manipulated. In the DOM specification, the term “document” is used in the broad sense – increasingly, XML is being used as a way of representing many different kinds of information that may be stored in diverse systems, and much of this would traditionally be seen as data rather than as documents. Nevertheless, XML presents this data as documents, and the DOM may be used to manage this data.” © “What is the Document Object Model?,” W3C, last modified November 13, 2000, <>.



Element record

That which is used to “describe[] the properties of an element within a segment.” © “MDR Structure,” Sabre Data Source, accessed August 22, 2013, <>.



When a computer program or platform is imitated on another program or platform, what takes place is called emulation. As a component of this process, “an emulator is itself a program that creates an extra layer between an existing computer platform (host platform) and the platform to be reproduced (target platform).” © “What is emulation?,” National Library of the Netherlands, accessed August 13, 2013, <>.



FIPS codes

Federal Information Processing Standards codes

A “standardized set of numeric or alphabetic codes issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to ensure uniform identification of geographic entities through all federal government agencies.” © <>.



Formula translation; FORTRAN before and including 1977, Fortran post-1977

“FORTRAN or formula translation was the first high level programming language (software) invented by John Backus for IBM in 1954, and released commercially in 1957. Fortran is still used today for programming scientific and mathematical applications.” © <>.



Frames per second

A benchmarking, screen capture and video capture utility for DirectX and OpenGL applications (such as games) for Windows computers. © “Fraps,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <>.



Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

An “entity-relationship model as a generalized view of the bibliographic universe, intended to be independent of any cataloging code or implementation.” © Barbara B. Tillett, “What is FRBR?: A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe,” Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service, last modified 2003, <>. Also published in Technicalities 25, no. 5 (September–October 2003): 1.




A “formal ontology intended to capture and represent the underlying  semantics of bibliographic information and to facilitate the integration, mediation, and interchange of bibliographic and museum information.” © Chryssoula Bekiari, et al, eds, “Object-oriented Definition and Mapping to FRBR,” International Working Group on FRBR and CIDOC CRM Harmonisation, last modified June 2009, <>, p. 9.




Geographic Information System

An information system that manipulates geographically referenced information in order to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize existing patterns, relationships, and trends in maps, globes, charts, and reports, among others. The use of GIS has given rise to the so-called Geographic Approach. © <>.


A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology

Published and copyrighted by the Society of American Archivists in 2005 “as one of seven volumes in the Archival Fundamentals Series II, the Glossary contains more than 2,000 defined entries, more than 600 lead-in terms, nearly 700 citations from some 280 sources, and is based primarily on archival literature in the United States and Canada.” <>.



Gemeinsame Normdatei (Ger., “Integrated Authority File”)

An authority file that “originates from the German library community and aims to solve the name ambiguity problem in the library world. Corresponding data is usually expressed in a customized MARC 21 Authority Format (GND MARC Format) which is quite domain specific and is not used beyond the library and publisher world.” © <>.



General Ordered-Descendant Directed Acyclic Graph.

A data structure in the form of “an acyclic directed graph in which nodes have ordered descendants.” It is mainly used in “conditional indexing and processing,” “extraction of well-formed subtrees and subdocuments from MECS documents,” “removal of spurious overlap from MECS documents and HTML documents.” <>.





A “design system for interactive fiction based on natural language.”





JavaScript Object Notation

A “lightweight data-interchange format [that] is based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language (Standard ECMA-262 3rd Edition, December 1999). JSON is a text format that is completely language independent but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C-family of languages.” <>.



An “open-source tool for comparing and collating multiple witnesses to a single textual work. Originally designed to aid scholars and editors examine the history of a text from manuscript to print versions,” and “as a standalone desktop application, Juxta allows users to [perform] operations of textual criticism on digital texts (TXT and XML).” <>.





Library of Congress Control Number; previously Library of Congress Card Number

“The Library of Congress Card Number was the number used to identify and control catalog cards. With the development of the MARC format and the first distribution of machine-readable records for book materials in the late 1960s, the name of the LCCN was changed to Library of Congress Control Number. LCCNs are used for authority, bibliographic and classification records.” © <>.



Leximancer is a data-mining tool that can be used to analyse the content of collections of textual documents and to visually display the extracted information. The information is  displayed by means of a conceptual map that provides a birds eye view of the material,  representing the main concepts contained within the text and how they are related. Apart  from viewing the conceptual structure of the information, this map allows users to  perform a directed search of the documents in order to explore instances of the concepts  or their interrelations. That is, Leximancer provides a means of both quantifying and  displaying the conceptual structure of a document set, as well as a means of using this  information to explore interesting conceptual features. <>.< >.



Layered Markup and Annotation Language

A model primarily as well as a syntax by implication that, although similar to XML in certain respects (e.g. both are conceived to “support markup … by means of text” and “provide a basis for descriptive and declarative markup applications”), differs from XML in several other ways (e.g. in model design and syntax) and thus seeks alternative approaches to and solutions for “modeling text-based information using markup” and the latter’s problems. © Wendell Piez, “Luminescent: parsing LMNL by XSLT upconversion,” Proceedings of Balisage: The Markup Conference 2012, last modified August 2012,<>. Balisage Series on Markup Technologies, vol. 8 (2012).




A “natural language text aligner that compares texts written in the same language. It detects modifications at character level, as opposed to related applications which either remain at word level or give poor results at character level. The detection of moved blocks in the text, induced by our formalism based on edit distance with moves, is introduced. The algorithm is closely related to sequence alignment in bioinformatics as similar building blocks are used and applied to this natural language processing task.” © Julien Bourdaillet and Jean-gabriel Ganascia, “MEDITE: A Unilingual Textual Aligner,” Advances in Natural Language Processing, 5th International Conference on NLP (Berlin: Springer, 2006), 458.



Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard

A “standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium. The standard is maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress, and is being developed as an initiative of the Digital Library Federation.” © <>.


Metadata Object Description Language (MODS)

A “bibliographic element set that may be used for a variety of purposes, and particularly for library applications. As an XML schema it is intended to be able to carry selected data from existing MARC 21 records as well as to enable the creation of original resource description records. It includes a subset of MARC fields and uses language-based tags rather than numeric ones, in some cases regrouping elements from the MARC 21 bibliographic format. As of June 2009 this schema is in its third version (version 3.3). MODS is expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium. The standard is maintained by the MODS Editorial Committee with support from the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress.” © “MODS: Uses and Features,” The Library of Congress, accessed August 22, 2013, <>.




An “open-source graph database” which “stores data in nodes connected by directed, typed relationships with properties on both, also known as a Property Graph.” <>.




Object Reuse and Exchange Model

Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources. These aggregations, sometimes called compound digital objects, may combine distributed resources with multiple media types including text, images, data, and video. The goal of these standards is to expose the rich content in these aggregations to applications that support authoring, deposit, exchange, visualization, reuse, and preservation. Although a motivating use case for the work is the changing nature of scholarship and scholarly communication, and the need for cyberinfrastructure to support that scholarship, the intent of the effort is to develop standards that generalize across all web-based information including the increasing popular social networks of “web 2.0.” <>.



Open Archival Information System

An “archive, consisting of an organization, which may be part of a larger organization, of people and systems that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it available for a designated community. It meets a set of such responsibilities as defined in” ISO 14721:2012. © “ISO 14721:2012,”, accessed August 16, 2013, <>.



One Document Does it all

A source format in which the TEI is written and “includes the schema fragments, prose documentation, and reference documentation for the TEI Guidelines in a single document. An ODD specification is a normal TEI XML document which makes use of the tagdocs module. This adds a series of elements which are used to specify a new schema, and modifications to the TEI element structure.” © <>.



Web ontology language designed to for content that needs to be processed by applications rather than humans.




A “general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation and now used for a wide range of tasks including system administration, web development, network programming, GUI development,” etc. © “Perl Introduction,” Tutorialspoint, accessed August 16, 2013, <>.<>.



Personennormdatei (Ger., “Name Authority File”)

The German National Library authority file equivalent to The Library of Congress Name Authority File (LCNAF). An authority file “provides authoritative data for names of persons, organizations, events, places, and titles. Its purpose is the identification of these entities and, through the use of such controlled vocabulary, to provide uniform access to bibliographic resources.” © <>.





A programming language designed for statistical exploration of data sets and producing graphics. The term “R graph” refers to a graph produced with R. For more information, see: <>.



Resource Description Framework

An “infrastructure that enables the encoding, exchange, and reuse of structured metadata. RDF is an application of XML that imposes needed structural constraints to provide unambiguous methods of expressing semantics. RDF additionally provides a means for publishing both human-readable and machine-processable vocabularies designed to encourage the reuse and extension of metadata semantics among disparate information communities.” © Eric Miller, “An Introduction to the Resource Description Framework,” D-Lib Magazine, last modified May 1998, <>.




A term coined by John Cowan to describe the syntax of LMNL.



An iterative and incremental agile software development framework for managing software projects and product or application development. Its focus is on “a flexible, holistic product development strategy where a development team works as a unit to reach a common goal” as opposed to a “traditional, sequential approach”. Scrum enables the creation of self-organizing teams by encouraging co-location of all team members, and verbal communication between all team members and disciplines in the project. © <>.



Standard Generalized Markup Language

An “ISO-standard technology for defining generalized markup languages for documents” which is “based on two novel postulates: [1.] Markup should be declarative: it should describe a document’s structure and other attributes, rather than specify the processing to be performed on it. Declarative markup is less likely to conflict with unforeseen future processing needs and techniques. [2.] Markup should be rigorous so that the techniques available for processing rigorously-defined objects like programs and databases can be used for processing documents as well.” © “Standard Generalized Markup Language,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <>.



An “open source enterprise search platform from Apache Lucene™” that is “written in Java and runs as a standalone full-text search server within a servlet container such as Jetty. Solr uses the Lucene Java search library at its core for full-text indexing and search, and has REST-like HTTP/XML and JSON APIs.” <>.



Structured Query Language

A “special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS). Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of a data definition language and a data manipulation language. The scope of SQL includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and modification, and data access control. Although SQL is often described as, and to a great extent is, a declarative language (4GL), it also includes procedural elements.” © “SQL,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <>.



An SVG browser as part of the Batik Project, the latter subsumed under an Apache™ SVG project. © Wendell Piez, Opening Keynote to the KODM WWP Seminar (Providence, RI: Brown University, 2012). <>.



TEI/TEI Guidelines

Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange

A “consortium which collectively develops and maintains a standard for the representation of texts in digital form. Its chief deliverable is a set of Guidelines” which “define and document a markup language for representing the structural, renditional, and conceptual features of texts. They focus (though not exclusively) on the encoding of documents in the humanities and social sciences, and in particular on the representation of primary source materials for research and analysis. These guidelines are expressed as a modular, extensible XML schema, accompanied by detailed documentation, and are published under an open-source license.” © “TEI: Text Encoding Initiative” and “TEL Guidelines,” TEI, accessed August 18, 2013, <> and <>.




A computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation and handling of text expressed in most of the world’s writing systems. Developed in conjunction with the Universal Character Set standard and published in book form as The Unicode Standard, the latest version of Unicode contains a repertoire of more than 110,000 characters covering 100 scripts. The standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding methodology and set of standard character encodings, a set of reference data computer files, and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization, decomposition, collation, rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew, and left-to-right scripts) <>. <>.



Uniform Resource Identifier

A “compact string of characters for identifying an abstract or physical resource” on the World Wide Web. © T. Berners-Lee, et al, “Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax,” The Internet Engineering Task Force, last modified August 1998, <>, p. 1.




Markup Validation Service

A “validator by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that allows Internet users to check HTML and XHTML documents for well-formed markup. Markup validation is an important step towards ensuring the technical quality of web pages; however, it is not a complete measure of web standards conformance. Though W3C validation is important for browser compatibility and site usability, it has not been confirmed what effect it has on search engine optimization.” © “W3C Markup Validation Service,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <>.<>.



Virtual International Authority File

A “joint project of several national libraries plus selected regional and trans-national library agencies” that is “implemented and hosted by OCLC.” VIAF aims “to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking widely-used authority files and making that information available on the Web.” <>.





EXtensible Markup Language

An “extremely simple dialect of SGML. The goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and processed on the Web in the way that is now possible with HTML. XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and HTML.” © “Glossary,” W3C, last modified November 13, 2000, <>.



EXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation

XSLT is a style sheet language that translates XML files into other documents or objects, such as an XML document into a webpage. <>.




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