Terminology

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A

Abandonware

Abandonware is software no longer supported by the publisher although not necessarily out of copyright. Many “abandoned” software properties, especially games, are available online at sites such as http://www.abandonia.com and http://www.xtcabandonware.com/

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Actor-Network Theory (ANT)

ANT is a an approach to social theory and research developed by science and technology scholars Michel Callon and Bruno Latour, sociologist John Law, and others. ANT treats objects as part of social networks and is described as a material-semiotic method. ANT considers many relationships as both material and semiotic, so both are included in ANT network mapping. For more information, see: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/centres/css/ant/antres.htm

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Aggregation node

An aggregation node groups content into a parent node. For more information, see Professor Stefan Gradmann’s Slide Presentation, “DH Research, Europeana, and the Embedded Semantic Research Library.” Cortona: January 18, 2013. Available at <http://www.slideshare.net/netseven/digital-humanities-research-europeana-and-the-embedded-semantic-research-library&gt;. © Slideshare.net, accessed August 29, 2013.

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American Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII)

ASCII “is a character-encoding scheme original based on the English alphabet that encodes 128 specified characters – the numbers 0-9, the letters a-z and A-Z, some basic punctuation symbols, some control codes that originated with Teletype machines, and a blank space – into the 7-bit binary integers.  ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text.  Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters.” © “ASCII,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII>.

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ANTLR Parser Generator

ANother Tool for Language Recognition

A powerful parser generator for reading, processing, executing, or translating structured text or binary files. It’s widely used to build languages, tools, and frameworks. From a grammar, ANTLR generates a parser that can build and walk parse trees. Developed by Terence Parr. <http://www.antlr.org/>.

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A priori vs. a posteriori modeling

Modeling which proceeds from deduction and pure theoretical reasoning versus modeling which proceeds from induction and reasoning based on empirical observations.

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Archival Information Package (AIP)

“An Information Package, consisting of the Content Information and the associated Preservation Description Information (PDI), which is preserved within an OAIS.” © The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Recommendation for Space Data Systems Packages: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), (Washington, DC: Magenta Book, 2012), 1-9. Available at <http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf>.

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ASP

Active Server Pages

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Aspect model

aka “probabilistic latent semantic analysis” (pLSA) and “probabilistic latent semantic indexing” (pLSI)

An approach that “models each word in a document as a sample from a mixture model, where the mixture components are multinomial random variables that can be viewed as representations of ‘topics’. Thus each word is generated from a single topic, and different words in a document may be generated from different topics. Each document is represented as a list of mixing proportions for these mixture components and thereby reduced to a probability distribution on a fixed set of topics. This distribution is the ‘reduced description’ associated with the document.” © David M. Blei, et al, “Latent Dirichlet Allocation,” Journal of Machine Learning Research 3, no. 1 (2003): 994. Available at <http://jmlr.org/papers/volume3/blei03a/blei03a.pdf>.

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Aspect object

“In order to satisfy different research approaches and perspectives, the smallest entity of the Person Data Repository is not a person, but a single statement on a person, which is named ‘aspect’ in the data model. An aspect bundles references to persons, places, dates, and sources. By proper queries it will be possible to create further narrations, whose first dimension is not necessarily a person, but possibly also a time span or a certain location. Those [additional details] can enhance the knowledge on persons in turn. Additionally, all aspects are connected to the corresponding source and to current identification systems respectively, like the LCCN or the German PND.” © “The Person Data Repository,” Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, last modified November 30, 2009 <http://pdr.bbaw.de/downloads/pdr_project_description_english.pdf/?format=print>.

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Automated collation

Collation refers to “the assembly of written information into a standard order. Many systems of collation are based on numerical order or alphabetical order, or extensions and combinations thereof.” Automated collation is “when information is stored in digital systems…. It is then necessary to implement an appropriate collation algorithm that allows the information to be sorted in a satisfactory manner for the application in question.” © “Collation,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collation>.

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Automatic identity recognition

An application of automatic pattern recognition processes in the field of identity validation and security which uses features and automatic techniques to successfully establish the identity of a human subject.

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Automatic pattern recognition

A process to mine and index big data via computational methods and machine-based approaches that uses algorithms, classification techniques, and pattern attributes for the latter’s automatic classification. In other words, it seeks to categorise “examples” on the basis of their essential “features” and into the “classes” to which they accordingly belong. This process can be applied to large amounts of textual and audiovisual data, amongst others, and has applications in natural as well as social sciences.

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Automatic text classification

“Automatic text classification is a semi-supervised machine learning task that automatically assigns a given document to a set of pre-defined categories based on its textual content and extracted features.” © Mita K. Dalal and Mukesh A. Zaveri, “Automatic Text Classification: A Technical Review,” International Journal of Computer Applications 28, no. 2 (August 2011): 37. Available at <http://www.ijcaonline.org/volume28/number2/pxc3874633.pdf>.

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AXIS

AXIS is an “integrated technology and marketing services” company that specializes in database software, website development, and marketing applications. <http://www.axisintegrated.ca.>.

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B

Basemap

In Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a basemap refers to the starting or background map to which all GIS data layers are registered and rescaled. Basemaps typically depict reference information such as landmarks, roads, landforms, and boundaries, and are used as a locational reference for GIS data. See <http://support.esri.com/en/knowledgebase/GISDictionary/term/basemap>.

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Befund

“Record” (Ger.) as used in German editorial theory.

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Big O notation

aka “Landau’s symbol”

A symbolism with applications in mathematics, computer science, and complexity theory “to describe the asymptotic behavior of functions.” This notation is used to show “how fast a function grows or declines.” © “Big O Notation,” MIT.edu, accessed August 13, 2013, <http://web.mit.edu/16.070/www/lecture/big_o.pdf>.

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Bioinformatics

An “interdisciplinary field that develops and improves on methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data. A major activity in bioinformatics is to develop software tools to generate useful biological knowledge.” © “Bioinformatics,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioinformatics>.

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Bit rot

Bit rot is a “hypothetical disease” used to explain the phenomenon in which unused features and programs cease functioning over time; the theory holds that bits decay in a way analogous to radioactive substances. © “Bit Rot,” The Jargon File, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/B/bit-rot.html>.

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Bit stream

A bit stream is a continuous series of bits, the basic unit of computing information. © “Bitstream,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitstream>.

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BNF

Backus Normal Form/Backus-Naur Form

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Brown Corpus

“The Brown University Standard Corpus of Present-Day English … was compiled in the 1960s by Henry Kucera and W. Nelson Francis at Brown University…as a general corpus (text collection) in the field of corpus linguistics.  It contains 500 samples of English-language text, totaling roughly one million words, compiled from works publics in the United States in 1961.” © “Brown Corpus,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_Corpus>.

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Byte streams

“Programs use byte streams to perform input and output of 8-bit bytes.” © <http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/essential/io/bytestreams.html>

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C

CAPTCHA

This acronym stands for Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart and is sometimes referred to as a reverse Turing test; A “capture response test.” © “CAPTCHA,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 28, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAPTCHA>. Trademark, Carnegie Mellon University, 2000.

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CATMA

Computer Aided Textual Markup & Analysis

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CDR

Call Detail Record

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Checksum

A checksum is a datum computed from a larger block of data for the purpose of identifying transmission or storage errors; a checksum can be recomputed and compared with the stored one to determine whether data has been corrupted – matching checksums indicate that data is not likely to have been altered. © “Checksum,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013,  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Checksum>.

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Cheshire

An open source XML search engine. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://cheshire3.org/>

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CLÉA

Collaborative Literature Éxploration and Annotation

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Cocoa

An early form of event-based computer markup language.

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Colossal Cave Adventure

Colossal Cave Adventure (also Colossal Cave and Adventure) was the first text adventure game, developed by Will Crowther in 1976-76 and later expanded by Don Woods. The game is based on an actual cave in Kentucky and also incorporates fantasy elements, as well as puzzles and combat. © Jerz, Dennis. “Somewhere Nearby is Colossal Cave: Examining Will Crowther’s Original ‘Adventure’ in Code and in Kentucky.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 1.2 (2007): n. pag. <http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/001/2/000009/000009.html>.

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Competition Pro 5000

The Competition Pro series of joysticks were produced by Kempston Micro Electronics for use with game systems such as the Commodore 64 and Atari systems. © “Kempston Micro Electronics,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kempston_Micro_Electronics>.

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Contact disciplines

The result of the process of two discrete fields finding areas of common concern and forming a new, hybrid field of study. For example, the field of computer science and linguistics forming the contact discipline of computational linguistics.

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Computational linguistics

“Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.” © “Computational linguistics,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_linguistics>.

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Computational tractability

(Of mechanisms) the ability of the outcome of a mechanism to be computed (by a computer) in a reasonable period of time. © Amos Fiat, “Chapter 8: Computational Tractability,” Tel Aviv University School of Computer Science, last modified March 6, 2012, <http://www.cs.tau.ac.il/~fiat/mdsem12/amd08.pdf>.

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Constraint graph

(In constraint satisfaction research of artificial intelligence and operations research) used, along with hypergraphs, “to represent relations among constraints in a constraint satisfaction problem. A constraint graph is a special case of a factor graph, which allows for the existence of free variables.” © “Constraint graph,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constraint_graph>.

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Confusion Matrix

“In the field of machine learning, a confusion matrix is a specific table layout that allows visualization of the performance of an algorithm, typically a supervised learning one.  Each column of the matrix represents the instances in a predicted class, while each row represents the instances in an actual class.  The name stems from the fact that it makes it easy to see if the system is confusing two class, i.e. commonly mislabeling one as another.”  © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confusion_matrix>.

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Context-free grammar (CFG)

aka “phrase structure grammar”

(In formal language theory) “a grammar that naturally generates a formal language in which clauses can be nested inside clauses arbitrarily deeply, but where grammatical structures are not allowed to overlap.” © “Context-free grammar,” Princeton.edu, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Context-free_grammar.html>.

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Corpora

Plural of corpus; multiple sets of structured or collections of texts.

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Corpus Linguistics

“Corpus linguistics is a study of language and a method of linguistic analysis which uses a collection of natural or “real word” texts known as corpus. Corpus linguistics is used to analyse and research a number of linguistic questions and offers a unique insight into the dynamic of language which has made it one of the most widely used linguistic methodologies.” © <http://www.cl2011.org.uk/>.

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CPF

Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families

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CS

Cognitive Science

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CSS

Cascading Style Sheets

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Cycle graph

aka “circular graph”

(In graph theory) “a graph that consists of a single cycle, or in other words, some number of vertices connected in a closed chain.” © “Graph cycle,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycle_graph>.

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D

Data binding

Data binding is “a general technique that binds two data/information sources together and maintains them in sync. This is usually done with two data/information sources with different types as in XML data binding.” © “Data binding,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 28, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_binding>.

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Data curation

aka “digital curation,” “digital stewardship,” or “digital archiving”

A “term used to indicate management activities required to maintain research data long-term such that it is available for reuse and preservation. In science, data curation may indicate the process of extraction of important information from scientific texts, such as research articles by experts, to be converted into an electronic format, such as an entry of a biological database. The term is also used in the humanities, where increasing cultural and scholarly data from digital humanities projects requires the expertise and analytical practices of data curation.” © “Data curation,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_curation>.

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Data mining

A subfield of computer science that uses computational programs to discover and analyze patterns within large data sets. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_mining>

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Data serialization formats

Data serialization formats are the various means used to translate and store or transmit data structures; the resulting series of bits can then be reread and used to recreate the original data structures. © “Serialization,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serialization>.

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DAG

Database Availability Group

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Database normalization

The “process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy and dependency. Normalization usually involves dividing large tables into smaller (and less redundant) tables and defining relationships between them. The objective is to isolate data so that additions, deletions, and modifications of a field can be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the database using the defined relationships.” © “Database normalization” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_normalization>.

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DBpedia

Database-pedia

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DCMI

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

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Delta distance

If we consider a C1-move as a “single crossing change” and a C2-move as a “simultaneous crossing change for 3 arcs forming a triangle,” then C2-move is called delta-move and C2-distance delta distance. © Michel Marie Deza and Elena Deza, Encyclopedia of Distances, 2nd ed. (Berlin: Springer, 2013), 167.

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Designated Community

“An identified group of potential Consumers who should be able to understand a particular set of information. The Designated Community may be composed of multiple user communities. A Designated Community is defined by the Archive and this definition may change over time.” © The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Recommendation for Space Data Systems Packages: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), (Washington, DC: Magenta Book, 2012), 1-11. Available at <http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf>.

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Deutung

“Interpretation” (Ger.) as used in German editorial theory.

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Digital Humanities Conference

Annual conference of the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations. <http://dh2013.unl.edu/>

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Dirty data

Dirty data contains incomplete or erroneous information. © 2010 – 2013 Janalta Interactive Inc. “Dirty Data,” Techopedia, accessed August 28, 2013. <http://www.techopedia.com/definition/1194/dirty-data&gt;.

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Disjoint sets

“In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no element in common.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disjoint_sets>

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Dissemination Information Package (DIP)

“An Information Package, derived from one or more AIPs, and sent by Archives to the Consumer in response to a request to the OAIS.” © The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Recommendation for Space Data Systems Packages: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), (Washington, DC: Magenta Book, 2012), 1-11. Available at <http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf>.

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Distributed system

A “collection of autonomous computers, connected through a network and distribution middleware, which enables computers to coordinate their activities and to share the resources of the system, so that users perceive the system as a single, integrated computing facility.” © Wolfgang Emmerich, “Distributed System Principles,” The UCL Department of Computer Science, last modified 1997, <http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/ucacwxe/lectures/ds98-99/dsee3.pdf>.

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DM2e

Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana

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Doom

The first-person shooter game Doom was released in 1993 by id Software; it is generally regarded as a highly influential on the development of games and gameplay due to its first-person perspective and three-dimensional environment. © Mäyrä, Frans. An Introduction to Game Studies: Games in Culture. London: SAGE Publications, 2008.

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DPI

Dots Per Inch

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DRM

Digital Rights Management

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DTD

Document Type Definition

A “set of markup declarations that define a document type for an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML). A DTD uses a terse formal syntax that declares precisely which elements and references may appear where in the document of the particular type, and what the elements’ contents and attributes are. A DTD can also declare entities which may be used in the instance document.” © “Document type definition,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Accessed October 29, 2013 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Document_type_definition>.

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E

EAC-CPF

Encoded Archival Context for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families

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Encoded Archival Context (EAC)

A standard to mark up (encode) information relating to the circumstances of record creation and use, including the identification, characteristics, and interrelationships of the organizations, persons, and families who created, used, or were the subject of the records. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/e/encoded-archival-context>

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EAD

Encoded Archival Description

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Emblem Books

Collections of symbolic pictures, usually accompanied by mottoes and expositions in verse and often also by a prose commentary. Derived from the medieval allegory and bestiary, the emblem book developed as a pictorial-literary genre in 16th-century Italy and became popular throughout western Europe in the 17th century. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/185554/emblem-book>

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ER (diagrams)

Entity-relationship [model]

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Europeana Data Model for Cultural Heritage (EDM)

A structure for supporting the organization and analysis of cultural metadata.<http://pro.europeana.eu/documents/900548/f495317b-4557-4a60-9326-723f4618b44c>

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Extensibility

A “system design principle where the implementation takes future growth into consideration. It is a systemic measure of the ability to extend a system and the level of effort required to implement the extension. Extensions can be through the addition of new functionality or through modification of existing functionality. The central theme is to provide for change–typically enhancements – while minimizing impact to existing system functions. © “Extensibility,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensibility>.

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F

FileMaker

FileMaker is a company that produces database software for Windows, Macintosh, and web platforms. <http://www.filemaker.com>.

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Fixity Information

“The information which documents the mechanisms that ensure that the Content Information object has not been altered in an undocumented manner. An example is a Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) code for a file.” © The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Recommendation for Space Data Systems Packages: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), (Washington, DC: Magenta Book, 2012), 1-11. Available at <http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf>.

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Flux transition

The flux transition is the change in magnetic polarity (“flux”) in reading from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 on a magnetic disk or tape. © Software Preservation Society, “Flux Transition,” accessed August 18, 2013, <http://www.softpres.org/glossary:flux_transition>.

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Formal Grammar

“In formal language theory, a grammar is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.  The rules describe how to form strings from the language’s alphabet that are valid according to the language’s syntax.  A grammar does not describe the meaning of the strings or what can be done with them in whatever context – only their form.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_grammar>

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Formal Language Theory

The Formal Language Theory considers a Language as a mathematical object. A Language is just a set of strings. To formally define a Language we need to formally define what are the strings admitted by the Language. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www.inf.unibz.it/~artale/Compiler/slide2.pdf>

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Fuzziness

A “type of deterministic uncertainty” that “measures the degree to which an event occurs.” © Bogdan R. Kosanovic, “Fuzziness and Probability,” neuronet.pitt.edu, last modified February 8, 1995, <http://www.neuronet.pitt.edu/~bogdan/research/fuzzy/fvsp/fvsp.html>.

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Fundamental ontology

Refers to a central concern of the philosopher Heidegger about the nature and being of entities. See <http://ebooks.cambridge.org/chapter.jsf?bid=CBO9780511498060&cid=CBO9780511498060A008> and <http://www.sunypress.edu/p-1192-heidegger-and-the-project-of-fu.aspx>

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G

Gaussian

(Function, distribution or curve); normal distribution. In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distribution—a function that tells the probability of a number in some context falling between any two real numbers. © “Gaussian,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 27, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution>.

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Genetic edition

As an instance of genetic editing/criticism, a genetic edition traces the underlying components of a text back to its roots. “Genetic criticism does not focus on one particular state of the text, but rather in the process by which the text came to be.” What matters, therefore, is “‘the reconstruction and analysis of the writing process.… Geneticists find endless richness in [the] critical gathering of a writer’s notes, sketches, drafts, manuscripts, typescripts, proofs, and correspondence’. However, a genetic edition is more than a ‘critical gathering’ of primary documents. In a genetic edition it is [also] possible to present the documents and texts that lead to the printed version of a particular work and also the variation among these printed texts.” © Barbara Bordajelo, “Textual Scholarship,” TextualScholarship.org, accessed August 17, 2013, <http://www.textualscholarship.org/gencrit/index.html>.

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GeoNames

A “geographical database available and accessible through various web services, under a Creative Commons attribution license. The GeoNames database contains over 10,000,000 geographical names corresponding to over [8,000,000] unique features. All features are categorized into one out of nine feature classes and further subcategorized into one out of 645 feature codes. Beyond names of places in various languages, data stored include latitude, longitude, elevation, population, administrative subdivision and postal codes. All coordinates use the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84).”
© “GeoNames,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GeoNames>.

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German editorial theory

“Scholars of German editing contest the idea of a single, adequate text as the ultimate aim of editorial work. They also regard authorial intentions as multiple, dynamic, and developing over time rather than a monolithic and static notion. In short, the German editorial mode rejects out of hand the very keystone of Anglo-American copy-text editing and the recovery of authorial intention in a work reconstructed through eclectic procedures.… The German conception thus allows for social and collective factors, involving the influences of other parties such as editors, printers, readers (their expected responses), etc., which necessarily enter the production of a work in the modern era.” © Kenny Ng, “An Overview of Contemporary German Editorial Theory,” Depts.Washington.edu, last modified Spring 1998, <http://depts.washington.edu/texts/txttheoproj/cget.shtml>.

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GODDAG Structure

General Ordered-Descendant Directed Acyclic Graph

THe GODDAG Structure is “an acyclic directed graph in which nodes have ordered descendants.”  It “allows the markup in the source document to be interpreted in fairly straightforward graph-theoretical terms. The inheritance from parents to children of claims about properties can be interpreted just as it can be for a tree structure…Just as with trees, GODDAG structures provide simple ways to explain and think about overriding of inherited values and the coexistence of properties asserted of ancestors and descendants.” © <http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/ach-allc.99/proceedings/sperberg-mcqueen.html>

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Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem

“A common name given to two theorems established by K[urt] Gödel. Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system containing a minimum of arithmetic (, the symbols , and the usual rules for handling them) a formally-undecidable proposition can be found, i.e. a closed formula  such that neither  nor  can be deduced within the system. Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem states that if certain natural completeness conditions are met, one can take this formula  to be the formula which expresses the consistency of the system.” © “Gödel Incompleteness Theorem,” Encyclopedia of Mathematics, accessed August 15, 2013, <http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=G%C3%B6del_incompleteness_theorem&oldid=23314>.

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Granularity

The “extent to which a system is broken down into small parts, either the system itself or its description or observation. It is the extent to which a larger entity is subdivided.” © “Granularity,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granularity>.

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Graph database

A “database that uses graph structures with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. By definition, a graph database is any storage system that provides index-free adjacency. This means that every element contains a direct pointer to its adjacent element and no index lookups are necessary.” © “Graph database,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graph_database>.

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Greedy algorithm

“An algorithm that always takes the best immediate, or local, solution while finding an answer. Greedy algorithms find the overall, or globally, optimal solution for some optimization problems, but may find less-than-optimal solutions for some instances of other problems.” © Paul E. Black, “greedy algorithm,” Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures [online], ed. Paul E. Black, U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, last modified February 2, 2005, <http://www.nist.gov/dads/HTML/greedyalgo.html>.

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H

HCI

Human-Computer Interaction

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Henkel-Schöne

Henkel-Schöne is a bibliographic abbreviation for a Emblem handbook:  Arthur Henkel, Albrecht Schöne (Ed.): Handbuch zur Sinnbildkunst des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart : Metzler, 1967ff.

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Hermeneutic spiral (or Hermeneutic circle)

The process of understanding a text as composed of both parts and a whole that always relate to one another. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermeneutic_circle>

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Heuristic

A “technique designed for solving a problem more quickly when classic methods are too slow, or for finding an approximate solution when classic methods fail to find any exact solution. This is achieved by trading optimality, completeness, accuracy, or precision for speed.” © “Heuristic,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuristic_(computer_science)>.

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High complexity

“The complexity of a physical system or a dynamical process expresses the degree to which components engage in organized structured interactions. High complexity is achieved in systems that exhibit a mixture of order and disorder (randomness and regularity) and that have a high capacity to generate emergent phenomena.” © Olaf Sporns, “Complexity,” Scholarpedia 2, no. 10 (2007): 1623. <http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Complexity>.

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Historisch-kritische edition

Historical-critical edition. In German editorial theory, a historisch-kritische edition is a textual edition that distinguishes between what is found in the archive (the record, or Befund) and the editor’s interpretation of that archival record (reading text, or Deutung). © Gregor Middell, “Case Studies: Genetic Editions,” KODM WWP Seminar (Providence, RI: Brown University, 2012).

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Homoiconicity

From: Homoiconic. Same representation of code and data, from homo meaning the same and icon meaning representation. When procedures and text have the same representation both inside and outside the processor. <http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?DefinitionOfHomoiconic>.

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I

Iconclass

A classification system designed for art and iconography. It is a scientific tool for the description and retrieval of subjects represented in images (works of art, book illustrations, reproductions, photographs, etc.). <http://www.iconclass.nl/home>

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Ideal type

Typological term associated with sociologist Max Weber that is formed by subjective characteristics common to a given element. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideal_type>

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Ideograph

aka “ideogram”

A “graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention; others convey their meaning through pictorial resemblance to a physical object, and thus may also be referred to as pictograms.” © “,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideogram>.

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iframe

The <iframe> tag in HTML specifies an inline frame. An inline frame is used to embed another document within the current HTML document. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www.w3schools.com/tags/tag_iframe.asp>

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Illocutionary act

Linguistic term that refers to various aspects of speech. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illocutionary_act>

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Informal models

While a formal model states its components and their internal relationships in precise terms (mostly via mathematical equations), an informal model is loosely defined, i.e. it is in want of precision. © “Formal vs. Informal Models,” Introduction to Social and Economic Sciences, accessed August 15, 2013, <http://turnbull.sk.tsukuba.ac.jp/Teach/IntroSES/modeling-1.html>.

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Informational Hierarchy

aka “DIKW Hierarchy,” “Wisdom Hierarchy,” “Knowledge Hierarchy,” or “DIKW Pyramid”

The information hierarchy “refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.  Typically information is defined in terms of data, knowledge in terms of information, and wisdom in terms of knowledge.” © “DIKW Pyramid,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DIKW_Pyramid>.

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Information Theory

“Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics, electrical engineering, bioinformatics, and computer science involving the quantification of information…Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography, neurobiology,the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, plagiarism detection] and other forms of data analysis.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_theory>.

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Institute of Museum and Library Services

The primary source of federal support for American libraries and museums.

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Intentionality

“Intentionality is the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs. The puzzles of intentionality lie at the interface between the philosophy of mind and the philosophy of language.” © <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/intentionality/>.

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Interoperability

The “extent to which systems and devices can exchange data, and interpret that shared data. For two systems to be interoperable, they must be able to exchange data and subsequently present that data such that it can be understood by a user.” © HMISS Board, “What is Interoperability?,” HMISS: Transforming Healthcare Through IT, last modified April 5, 2013, <http://www.himss.org/library/interoperability-standards/what-is>.

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ISAAR(CPF)

International Standard Archival Authority Record for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families

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ISNI

International Standard Name Identifier

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Isomorphic

Being of identical or similar form or shape or structure. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/isomorphic>

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J

JML

Java Modeling Language

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K

KODM

Knowledge Organization and Data Modeling

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KyroFlux

A USB-based tool for preserving information on floppy disks, capable of reading and writing data without being limited by format or copy protection. © Software Preservation Society, “KyroFlux,” accessed August 18, 2013, <http://softpres.org/glossary:kryoflux>.

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L

Lemma

A Lemma “is the canonical form, dictionary form, or citation form of a set of words.  In English, for example, run, runs, ran, and running are forms of the same lexeme, with run as the lemma.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemma_(morphology)>

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Linked Open Data (LOD)

A “growing movement for organisations to  make their existing data available in a machine-readable format. This enables users to create and combine data sets and to make their own interpretations of data available in digestible formats and applications.” © Florian Bauer and Martin Kaltenböck, “Linked Open Data: The Essentials (A Quick Start Guide for Decision Makers),” Semantic Web Company: Linking Data to Knowledge (Vienna, Austria: Edition Mono/Monochrom, 2012), 4. Available at: <http://www.semantic-web.at/LOD-TheEssentials.pdf>.

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Lisp/LISP

List processing language (LISt Processor)

One of the oldest computer programming languages that pioneered many ideas in computer science including tree data structures. Originally designed in 1958 by professors John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky in conjunction with the MIT Artificial Intelligence Project for use in artificial intelligence and computer algebra. © Edwin D. Reilly, Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003), 156-157.

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Logic Based Languages

A programming language based on first-order logic.  Logic programming and sentences “can be understood purely declaratively. They can also be understood procedurally as goal-reduction procedures : to solve p(X, Y), first solve q(X), then solve r(Y).” © Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_programming>.

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Logograph

aka “logogram”

A “grapheme which represents a word or a morpheme (the smallest meaningful unit of language). This stands in contrast to phonograms, which represent phonemes (speech sounds) or combinations of phonemes, and determinatives, which mark semantic categories.” © ,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logogram>.

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M

Machinima

Machinima (a term combining “machine” and “cinema”) productions are cinematics made using real-time computer graphics engines, most often videogames. The term was coined by Hugh Hancock in the launch of machinima.com in 2000; this site collects machinima productions produced on a variety of platforms and defines machinima as “the process of creating real-time animation by manipulating a videogame’s engine and assets.” © Machinima, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://www.machinima.com>.

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Mandelbrot set

Refers to a mathematical set of points whose boundary is a distinctive and easily recognizable two-dimensional fractal shape. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandelbrot_set>. It is named after mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot.

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Maiolica

The refined, white-glazed pottery of the Italian Renaissance. It was adapted to all objects that were traditionally ceramic, such as dishes, bowls, serving vessels, and jugs of all shapes and sizes.

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MARC Record

MARC is an acronym, used in the field of library science, that stands for MAchine-Readable Cataloging; MARC Standards are a “set of digital formats for the description of items catalogued by libraries.” © “Marc Record,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 28, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_record&gt;.

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Metamodel

A metamodel is a basically a model of a model. It is the construction of a collection of concepts that govern the creation of a given type of model. Metamodels are particularly useful in software and system engineering. To create a metamodel one develops the rules, constraints, models, and theories necessary and useful for modeling a predefined set of problems. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamodeling> and <http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~jm/2507S/Notes04/Meta.pdf>

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Mindwheel

A work of interactive fiction (or text adventure game; the game was first marketed as an “Electronic Novel”) written by poet Robert Pinsky and released by Synapse Software in 1984. Mindwheel requires the player to solve puzzles while traveling through the dreaming minds of dead individuals in search of a solution for the violence that is on the verge of destroying the player character’s future society. © “Mindwheel.” SFE: Science Fiction Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://www.sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/mindwheel>.

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Multiple Parentage

When in a tree-like graph nodes have multiple parents and result in overlap. © C. M. Sperberg-McQueen and Claus Huitfeldt, “GODDAG: A Data Structure for Overlapping Hierarchies,” Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on the Principles of Digital Document Processing (PODDP 2000), ed. P. King and E. V. Munson, vol 2023 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Berlin: Springer, 2004).

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Mystery House

An adventure game released in 1980 by On-Line Systems, developed by Roberta and Ken Williams for the Apple II. It is notable as one of the earliest adventure games to feature graphics. Gameplay requires the player to explore an abandoned house and solve a murder mystery. © “Mystery House,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mystery_House>.

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N

N-gram

a contiguous sequence of n items from a given sequence of text or speech. The items can be phonemes, syllables, letters, words or base pairs according to the application. The n-grams typically are collected from a text or speech corpus. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram>

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Natural Language Processing (NLP)

A “field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computer and human (natural) languages.  As such, NLP is related to the area of human-computer interaction.”  © “Natural language processing,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing>

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Neo-Bauhaus

A renewed interest in and modification of the Bauhaus school. The Bauhaus school was “a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.  It operated from 1919 to 1933.”  © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus>.

Network

A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. The connections (network links) between networked computing devices (network nodes) are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet. © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network>.

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NCA

Non-County Area

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Northwest Ordinance

The Northwest Ordinance, “An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North West of the River Ohio,” was passed by the Confederation Congress on July 13, 1787. It established a system of government and the procedure for admitting new states into the union. The Northwest Ordinance also protected civil liberties and prohibited slavery in the new territories. The Northwest Territory was comprised of present-day states Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. See <http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/northwest.html>.

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NP-complete

Nondeterministic polynomial time

“In computational complexity theory, the complexity class NP-complete (abbreviated NP-C or NPC) is a class of decision problems. A decision problem L is NP-complete if it is in the set of NP problems and also in the set of NP-hard problems.” © “NP-complete,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NP-complete>.

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NP-hard problems

A “class of problems that are, informally, ‘at least as hard as the hardest problems in NP’.” © “NP-hard,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NP-hard>.

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O

Object Model

“The properties of objects in general in a specific computer programming language, technology, notation or methodology that uses them . . .”; “A collection of objects or classes through which a program can examine and manipulate some specific parts of its world. In other words, the object-oriented interface to some service or system. Such an interface is said to be the object model of the represented service or system.” © “Object model,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 28, 2013.  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_model>.

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OCLC

Online Computer Library Center

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OMG

Object Management Group

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O(N log N)

A function of N which behaves as N times logarithm N. See Big O notation.

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Ontology of science

Refers to the representation of structural frameworks for organizing information. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_%28information_science%29>.

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OPAC

Online Public Access Catalog

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Oratio obliqua

(Latin) indirect speech

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ORCID

Open Researcher and Contributor ID

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The Oregon Trail

The Oregon Trail is a computer game that was produced by the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) in 1974; the game has been released in a number of editions for multiple platforms. Gameplay requires the player to lead a party from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon in a covered wagon. © “The Oregon Trail,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 22, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oregon_Trail_%28video_game%29>.

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Overlap

When structures of markup “do not nest neatly into others.” © Steven Derose, “Markup Review: A Review and A Horse,” Extreme Markup 2004, Montréal, Québec (2004), <http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.108.9959>.

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ORI

Open Radio Equipment Interface

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OWL

Web Ontology Language

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P

Paradox of analysis

The paradox that if an analysis is correct, i.e. the analyzed unit (analysandum) and that which is put forward as the analysis (analysans) are interchangeable, then the whole analysis cannot be informative; and if it is informative, then the two above units cannot be interchangeable and, therefore, the analysis cannot be correct. What seems to be the case, as a result, is the incompatibility of correctness and informativeness. © Michael Beaney, “Analysis”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Winter 2012 Edition), <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/analysis/>.

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PDP-1 Machine

The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) computer was launched in 1959 by the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC); it represented a shift in computing design in that it focused on user interaction over computer cycle efficiency. Although only around 50 machines were produced, the PDP-1 had a significant impact on the computer industry, as the “world’s first commercial interactive computer” and a forerunner of the minicomputer. © “The Machine,” The Computer History Museum PDP-1 Restoration Project, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://pdp-1.computerhistory.org>.

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Person object

A non-unique person in the Person Data Repository to which relevant aspect objects refer. Since the PDR comprises a number of individual projects with overlaps, each person object is not necessarily referring to one single and unique historical person.

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Phoneme

Basic unit of a language’s sound. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoneme>.

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Philosophy of language

The philosophical study of language, including issues of meaning, usage, cognition, and relationships to reality. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_language>.

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PIT

PDR (Person Data Repository) Interface Tools

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Pivot Language

“A pivot language, sometimes also called a bridge language, is an artificial or natural language used as an intermediary language for translation between many different languages – to translate between any pair of languages A and B, one translated A to the pivot language P, then from P to B.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pivot_language>.

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Planets project

“Planets, Preservation and Long-term Access through Networked Services, is a four-year project co-funded by the European Union under the Sixth Framework Programme to address core digital preservation challenges. The primary goal for Planets is to build practical services and tools to help ensure long-term access to our digital cultural and scientific assets.” © <http://www.planets-project.eu/>.

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Playthrough

A playthrough of a videogame generally involves a video recording of a play session in which the player narrates and comments on gameplay. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with walkthrough, but generally carries less of a focus on strategy; “Let’s Play” is another term used to describe videos combining gameplay footage and player commentary. Playthroughs are available on sites such as the Let’s Play Archive: <http://lparchive.org/>.

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Post-Schema-Validation Infoset (PSVI)

The “collection of information [in XML Schema-based validation].” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML_Schema_(W3C)#Post-Schema-Validation_Infoset>

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Primitive data type

A fundamental component that is used to create other, larger parts. This word is used frequently in computer science. To solve a large problem, you look for the primitive operations that are needed, then use them to build the solution. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://chortle.ccsu.edu/java5/Notes/chap08/ch08_4.html>

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Probability theory

“Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena.  The central objects of probability theory are random variables, stochastic processes, and even: mathematical abstractions of non-deterministic events or measures quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in an apparently random fashion.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_theory>

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Processing chain

“A sequence of processes that wait in the background for an event. Some of these processes trigger a separate event that can start other processes in turn.” © 2013 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company.“SAP Help Portal” SAP, accessed August 28, 2013. <http://help.sap.com/saphelp_nw04/helpdata/en/8f/c08b3baaa59649e10000000a11402f/content.htm>.

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Property model
“A property model is used to dynamically access a model using a “property expression.” Copyright © 2004-2011 Apache Software Foundation. <http://wicket.apache.org/apidocs/1.4/org/apache/wicket/model/PropertyModel.html>.

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Propositional Logic

A branch of logic that “studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions, statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or sentences, as well as the logical relationships and properties that are derived from these methods of combining or altering statements.” © <http://www.iep.utm.edu/prop-log/>.

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Provenance

Provenance refers to the place of origin or ownership of a given object. In public history, library studies, and archival studies, provenance refers to the “chain of custody” of an object/manuscript, starting from the creator/original owner to the current location.  See <http://www.archivesinfo.com/arcdef.php>.

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Q

R

Rail shooter

A rail shooter is one in which the player controls a weapon’s targeting and shots but not the speed or direction in which the player character moves, as if the character were on rails.

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RapidMiner

An open-source system used for data mining. Used for data analysis or as a data mining engine for integration into related products. <http://rapid-i.com/content/view/181/>

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Register variation

“Register variation includes the ability to vary one’s language style based on the social context or communication partner.” © <http://www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/334464.html>

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Regex

Regular expression

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Relational database

A “database that has a collection of tables of data items, all of which is formally described and organized according to the relational model. The term is in contrast to only one table as the database, and in contrast to other models which also have many tables in one database.” © “Relational database,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relational_database>.

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Relational Model

Relational models theory posits that people use four elementary models to generate, interpret, coordinate, contest, plan, remember, evaluate, and think about most aspects of most social interaction in all societies. These models are Communal Sharing, Authority Ranking, Equality Matching, and Market Pricing. Scores of studies have demonstrated that people in all cultures use these models to organize much of their everyday social cognition. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www.rmt.ucla.edu/>

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R environment

Language and environment for statistical computing and graphics

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Representation Information

“The information that maps a Data Object into more meaningful concepts. An example of Representation Information for a bit sequence which is a FITS file might consist of the FITS standard which defines the format plus a dictionary which defines the meaning in the file of keywords which are not part of the standard. Another example is JPEG software which is used to render a JPEG file; rendering the JPEG file as bits is not very meaningful to humans but the software, which embodies an understanding of the JPEG standard, maps the bits into pixels which can then be rendered as an image for human viewing.” © The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Recommendation for Space Data Systems Packages: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), 2012. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf

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ROFF

ROFF was the first Unix text-formatting computer program. It is the predecessor of the NROFF and TROFF document processing systems.

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RTF

Rich Text Format

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R-graph

A HTML5 canvas and JavaScript based library built for website charts. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www.rgraph.net/>

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S

S-expression

Symbolic expression

A notation for representing tree structures. List-based data structures that represent semi-structured data. Related to LISP. <http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/S-expression.html>.

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Sami

The Sami people, Sámi or Saami, are an indigenous people living in the Arctic area of Sápmi in Northern Norway, Finland, Denmark, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. They are the only indigenous people of Scandinavia recognized by the international conventions of indigenous peoples. Once nomadic hunters and gatherers, the Sami people are perhaps most known today for reindeer domestication and herding. See <http://www.sweden.se/eng/Home/Society/The-Sami-People/>.

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Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

It embodies two central claims: A) “Languages, especially members of quite different language families, differ in important ways from one another.” B) “The structure and lexicon of one’s language influences how one perceives and conceptualizes the world, and they do so in a systematic way.” © Chris Swoyer, “Relativism,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta (Winter 2010 Edition), <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2010/entries/relativism/>.

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Scalability

In electronics (including hardware, communication and software), scalability is the ability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work in a capable manner or its ability to be enlarged to accommodate that growth. © “Scalability,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalability>.

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Semantic data layer

A semantic layer “is a business representation of corporate data that helps end users access data autonomously using common business terms. Developed and patented by Business Objects, it maps complex data into familiar business terms such as product, customer, or revenue to offer a unified, consolidated view of data across the organization.”  © “Semantic Layer,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 28, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_layer>.

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Semantic Technology

“In software, semantic technology encodes meaning separately from data and content files, and separately from application code.  This enables machines as well as people to understand, share and reason with them at execution time.  With semantic technologies, adding, changing and implementing new relationships or interconnecting programs in a different way can be just as simple as changing the external model that these programs share.” ©  Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 24, 2013,<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_technology>.

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Separation of concerns

A principle in programming and software development that seeks to group functionality with a view to reducing overlap. This concept is held to increase the clarity as well as durability of the product. Encapsulation, modularity, and information hiding are three ways through which separation of concerns in achieved. © Doug Avery, “Client-Side Separation of Concerns: Are We Doing It Wrong?,” Extend: Code & Technology Blog, <http://viget.com/extend/client-side-separation-of-concerns-are-we-doing-it-wrong>.

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Sequence alignment

In the science of bioinformatics, “a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.” In other fields such as natural language processing, “methods used for biological sequence alignment have also found applications.” © “Sequence alignment,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequence_alignment>.

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Set theory

Branch of mathematics that studies the collection of mathematical objects. See <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Set_theory>.

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Shapefile

A shapefile is a file format for use in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The file extension is “.shp,” and data is stored in vector data format. A shapefile stores geographic information data, such as locations of landmarks, buildings, and streets, but does not store topographical information.  See <http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/shapefile.pdf>.

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SIG

Special Interest Group

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Significant properties

The significant properties of digital objects are the essential aspects that must be preserved in order that the object remain meaningful and intelligible over time. Identification of significant properties is an essential part of digital preservation, although there is not yet consensus on which aspects of various types of digital objects should be considered significant. © InSPECT (Investigating the Significant Properties of Electronic Content Over Time) project, Centre for e-Research (CeRch) at Kings College London and The National Archives (TNA), accessed August 18, 2013 <http://www.significantproperties.org.uk>.

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Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)

“SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems and taxonomies within the framework of the Semantic Web.” © <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/intro>.

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Software Migration

The “process of moving from the use of one operating environment to another operating environment that is, in most cases, is thought to be a better one.” © “Software modernization,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_modernization>.

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Source code

A “collection of computer instructions (possibly with comments) written using some human-readable computer language, usually as text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specifies the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by a compiler program into low-level machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, an interpreter can be used to analyze and perform the outcomes of the source code program directly on the fly. © “Source code,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_code>.

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Spacewar!

Developed for the PDP-1 machine by researchers at MIT; it was conceived in 1961 and produced in 1962, inspired by the science fiction novels of E. E. “Doc” Smith’s Lensman. The two-player game, in which players in spaceships attempt to destroy each other, was based on real-world physics. © “Spacewar!” The Computer History Museum PDP-1 Restoration Project, accessed August 19, 2013, <http://pdp-1.computerhistory.org/pdp-1/?f=theme&s=4&ss=3>.

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SPARQL

SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language. A query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPARQL>

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Spine of Information

Reference to Stephen Rawles’ “Spine of Information Headings.” The “Spine” is an attempt to e the taxonomy of emblems to the requirements of their digital presentation. It was devised in the belief that for any meaningful cooperation between projects aiming to present emblematic material on the Web it is necessary to agree a minimum (and, at the same time, optimum) set of data categories for use in such projects. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www.digicult.info/downloads/dc_emblemsbook_lowres.pdf>

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Stand-off markup

A kind of markup that resides in a location different from the location of the data being described by it. It is thus the opposite of inline markup, where data and annotations are intermingled within a single location. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://wiki.tei-c.org/index.php/Stand-off_markup>

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Standoff properties

A “form of standoff markup that does not use hierarchies. Instead it just records properties of ranges in the text. Standoff properties are stored in property-sets, which may be combined to enrich a text. They can also be combined with the text they point to and rendered in the formatter into HTML or into an XML format.” © “Standoff properties,” Humanities Resources Infrastructure and Tools, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://dhtestbed.ctsdh.luc.edu/hritinfrastructure/index.php/standoff-properties>.

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Submission Information Package (SIP)

“An Information Package that is delivered by the Producer to the OAIS for use in the construction or update of one or more AIPs and/or the associated Descriptive Information.” © The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), Recommendation for Space Data Systems Packages: Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), (Washington, DC: Magenta Book, 2012), 1-15. Available at <http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf>.

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Support Vector Machine (SVM)

“In machine learning, support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and recognize patterns, used for classification and regression analysis.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Accessed August 21, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Support_vector_machine>.

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(Digital) Surrogate

A digital copy, as in digitisation; “The process of creating digital files by scanning or otherwise converting analogue materials.The resulting digital copy, or digital surrogate, would then be classed as digital material . . . .” © “Introduction – Definition and Concepts,” Digital Preservation Coalition 2012. <http://www.dpconline.org/advice/preservationhandbook/introduction/definitions-and-concepts>.

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SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics

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T

TACT

Textual Analysis Computing Tools

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Text adventure game

Text adventure games, also called interactive fiction, are navigated by the player typing commands in response to the inputs given by the game, also presented as text passages, which are in turn influenced by the player’s choices. Adventure (later named Colossal Cave Adventure), created by Will Crowther in 1975-1976, is regarded as the first text adventure game. © Jerz, Dennis. “Somewhere Nearby is Colossal Cave: Examining Will Crowther’s Original ‘Adventure’ in Code and in Kentucky.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 1.2 (2007): n. pag. <http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/001/2/000009/000009.html>.

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Text analytics

See data mining.

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Text string

“In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.” © “String (computer science),” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 28, 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_string&gt;.

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TFIDF

Term Frequency Inverse Document  Frequency

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Token

A token is the “concrete, particular” identification of words and symbols. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/types-tokens/#WhaTok>

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Transformation language

A “computer language designed to transform some input text in a certain formal language into a modified output text that meets some specific goal.” © “Transformation language,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformation_language>.

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Transmedialization or transmedialazeil

Describes the “transfer of text from one medium to another. It is a special type of ‘remediation’ (Bolter & Grusin 1999), but not used in the broad sense, as transmedialization is closely related to a specific text and not to, e.g., narration in general in written text compared to narrative possibilities in film or computer games.” For more information, see Wenz, Karin. “Transmedialization: An interart transfer,” Netzliteratur, available at <http:/www.netzliteratur.net/wenz/trans.htm>. Last modified, April, 2013, accessed August 27, 2013.

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Traversal

Or tree traversal, “the process of visiting (examining and/or updating) each node in a tree data structure, exactly once, in a systematic way. Such traversals are classified by the order in which the nodes are visited.” © “Tree travesal,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_traversal>.

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Tree Structure

“A tree structure is a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form.  It is named a ‘tree structure’ because the classic representation resembles a tree, even though the chart is generally upside down compared to an actual tree, with the ‘root’ at the top and the ‘leaves’ at the bottom.” © Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Accessed August 24, 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_structure>.

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Triple syntax

The syntax of languages like RDF, which are represented as three-part statements taking the form subject-predicate-object. For more information, see “Resource Description Framework,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Accessed October 29, 2013 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Description_Framework>.

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TROFF

A text file format. A documentation preparation system that can generate many different output files from an input file with standard markup.

<https://projects.gnome.org/gnumeric/doc/file-format-troff.shtml>

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Truth-functional connective

“A statement connective is truth-functional if and only if the truth value of any compound statement obtained by applying that connective is a function of (is completely determined by) the individual truth values of the constituent statements that form the compound.” © <http://courses.umass.edu/phil110-gmh/text/c02_3-99.pdf>.

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TTI

Text Transformation Initiative

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Turing Complete Language

A given programming language is said to be Turing-complete if it can be shown that it is computationally equivalent to a Turing machine. That is, any problem that can be solved on a Turing machine using a finite amount of resources (i.e., time and tape), can be solved with the other language using a finite amount of its resources. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?TuringComplete>

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Turing Machine

Turing machines are simple abstract computational devices intended to help investigate the extent and limitations of what can be computed. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/turing-machine/>

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The Typing of the Dead

An arcade game that was released by Sega in Japanese arcades in 1999 and ported to the Sega Dreamcast in 2001. It is based on the arcade shooting game The House of the Dead 2 and requires the player to type words and phrases in order to defeat an advancing horde of zombies. © “The Typing of the Dead,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 20, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Typing_of_the_Dead>.

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U

UML

Unified Modeling Language

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Union List of Artists’ Names (ULAN)

A structured vocabulary of artist names and biographical information. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/ulan/>

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V

Value pair

A fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications. Designers often desire an open-ended data structure that allows for future extension without modifying existing code or data. In such situations, all or part of the data model may be expressed as a collection of tuples <attribute name, value>; each element is an attribute–value pair. Depending on the particular application and the implementation chosen by programmers, attribute names may or may not be unique. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribute%E2%80%93value_pair>

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Vaporware

A term used in the computer industry to describe hardware or software products that are not released on the date announced by the developer. Could be released months or years later or not at all. <http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Vaporware.html>

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VD 17

Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts; (English: Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries from 1601 to 1700.)

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Vector graphics

Vector graphics are produced using geometrical primitives – shapes based on mathematical equations, such as lines and curves. Unlike bitmap graphics, vector graphics retain resolution even when resized. © “Vector Graphics,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_graphics>.

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Virtual International Authority File

The VIAF™ (Virtual International Authority File) combines multiple name authority files into a single OCLC-hosted name authority service. The goal of the service is to lower the cost and increase the utility of library authority files by matching and linking widely-used authority files and making that information available on the Web. Accessed August 26, 2013, <http://viaf.org/>

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W

W3C

World Wide Web Consortium

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Walkthrough

Walkthroughs are guides to navigating videogames, presented either as videos or as combinations of text and screencaps. Walkthroughs are collected at sites such as GameSpot’s Walkthrough Archive <http://www.gamespot.com/walkthroughs.html> and on individual game guides and wikis.

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Weka

A collection of machine learning algorithms used for data mining tasks. The algorithms can either be applied directly to a dataset or called from one’s own Java code. It contains tools for data pre-processing, classification, regression, clustering, association rules, and visualization. <http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/>

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Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?

An educational game released by Brøderbund Software in 1985. The game, which has been followed by numerous sequels and variations, requires the player to use geography knowledge to track down and arrest henchmen of the criminal mastermind Carmen Sandiego, rising in rank to ultimately take on the title thief in the game’s final case. © “Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Where_in_the_World_Is_Carmen_Sandiego%3F_%281985%29>.

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X

XLMNL

XML-based representation of LMNL

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XML schema

A “description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntactical constraints imposed by XML itself. These constraints are generally expressed using some combination of grammatical rules governing the order of elements, Boolean predicates that the content must satisfy, data types governing the content of elements and attributes, and more specialized rules such as uniquenessand referential integrity constraints.” © “XML schema” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, accessed August 21, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML_schema>.

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XML serialization

“Serialization is the process of converting an object into a form that can be readily transported. XML serialization serializes only the public fields and property values of an object into an XML stream. XML serialization does not include type information.” @ “Introducing XML Serialization,” Microsoft Developer Network, last modified August 2, 2012, <http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/182eeyhh.aspx>.

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xPointer

XML Pointer Language

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Y

Z

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